We source our raw ingredients from very ethical, well-respected labs. We have access to all their (non-animal) in vitro and in vivo testing on the ingredients–for sensitivity and effectiveness. Once we create the formulas we do in vivo testing on our team of volunteers–who have a variety of skin types, ethnicity, geographic locations, ages, etc. , we gather that data and adjust formulation as needed to come up with a product that meets our goals. The process can take over a year, depending on the results of the tests, or it can take as little as a few months for simple products. Once that’s done, we begin microbiological testing of the product, ensuring its stability under temperature extremes, ability to effectively handle introduced pathogens, etc. That process is usually about two months. After that, we do periodic tests of our control batches to ensure that over time product is remaining stable.